Some municipalities, for example, have passed menu labeling laws that require fast food restaurants and restaurant chains to disclose nutritional information about the foods they sell, but developers may note that not all restaurants comply. If you have a problem with your taxes or aren`t sure how much tax you should pay, a local tax lawyer can help you determine how to proceed. Some tax lawyers also advise on criminal charges as well as tax evasion. The civil grand jury, when working with the board of oversight and county executive, can be a valuable tool for reviewing county programs and making constructive recommendations to improve the functioning of local government. The federal and state governments have exclusive powers and the ability to enact laws that may exist simultaneously to create checks and balances. Although the Constitution`s primacy clause gives the power to override certain state laws, that power has its limits. States are generally free to create and enforce their own laws as long as they are constitutional. In general, municipalities are governed by a council with a mayor or president. Some cities choose to appoint a city manager to lead the municipality on the advice of city council.
Each municipality has its own way of operating, so a local lawyer can help you navigate your area`s system in case you have a legal problem. Counties often have a municipal charter, issue local ordinances, and dictate the powers of government as well as the enforcement of the law. Towns or villages within a county may also have their own laws and local governments, but often rural or remote areas depend on the county. Generally, when there is a conflict between a state law and a local law, state laws prevail over all local or county ordinances. In addition, many states allow local courts to handle certain types of disputes in courts within their own communities. ChangeLab Solutions has developed this fact sheet to help advocates and other community leaders report violations of local ordinances. Boards can generate local revenue by levying or increasing a tax, fee or fee. Each of these local revenue sources has its own constitutional and legal authority and unique laws governing its use. A county may collect only such taxes, fees and charges as the legislature or the Constitution may make, and which are approved by a simple majority or a two-thirds majority of local voters in accordance with proposals 13 and 62. Whether you have a small or large business, your community may have unique business rules and regulations that can impact your business.
Most state and local jurisdictions have specific rules that apply to starting a business and may require you to obtain a license or submit other required documents. Having a business lawyer in your area can be a useful tool to ensure you comply with the law or help you resolve any legal issues that arise. This important publication is aimed at municipal officials, lawyers and planning authorities. It contains the full text of the relevant laws, including legislative amendments from the 2010 legislature. If a Board of Supervisors decides to impose or increase a particular tax, levy or fee, it must comply with the appropriate notification and consultation requirements. Each of these types of local revenue sources has different accounting and disclosure obligations. The Commission asks the Clerk and the District Attorney at the beginning of the process to ensure that all open hearing and disclosure requirements are met. Local governments typically consist of two levels: counties, also called boroughs in Alaska and parishes in Louisiana, and municipalities or cities/townships. In some states, counties are divided into townships. Municipalities can be structured in many ways, as defined in state constitutions, and are variously referred to as municipalities, villages, districts, cities, or municipalities. Different types of districts also provide functions in local government outside county or municipal boundaries, such as school districts or fire safety districts.
A Board of Supervisors may also establish an agreement of joint competences and/or an agency with common powers with another public body. A Joint Authority Agreement (JAA) is created when two or more local governments enter into a cooperation agreement to provide services that one of them could provide alone. A joint authority agreement involves a reciprocal agreement on specific terms and conditions that may limit each agency`s ability to act independently, but it does not change the basic structure of each agency`s decision-making processes. These PPAs are quite common; A sheriff`s department can provide policing services for a city, or a county and city can form a JPA to jointly operate an emergency center. A joint agency takes the concept of agreement and cooperation to a new level. California Government Code Section 6500 allows counties, cities, special counties, and other public entities to enter into agreements that create new, autonomous agencies. The new authorities will have a separate Management Board with the inherent powers of all the agencies concerned. The authority`s powers may be general or specific, the length of the organization`s term of office must be determined, and other administrative decisions must be made (e.g., how the board meets and conducts its business). For example, two parties may agree to create a joint transit authority where both parties provide the necessary resources and capital.
Staff can become employees of the new authority and, with a new works council, policies can be defined independently to create transport services for both jurisdictions.